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How to Test a 40G QSFP+ Transceiver

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Due to the increasing demand for bandwidth, the demand of large capacity optical communication devices become more and more urgent. Therefore, as the key part of optical communication devices, optical modules are becoming more and more popular, and the rate of them is higher and higher. 40G QSFP (Small Form-factor Pluggable Quad) optical module: four channel SPF (QSFP) optical module is designed specifically for high density, high speed and the need to be hot-pluggable. Such as a QSFP optical module, the total data transmission speed arrives at 40Gbps of all 4 channels together. It is located in the physical media related layer of the optical fiber communication Ethernet protocol and the core component of photoelectric and electro-optical conversion. The 40G QSFP+ optical module can be

adjusted to different transmission speeds, and can be applied to Ethernet, Channel Fiber and InfiniBand standards to solve the data transmission in higher efficiency.

In order to verify the performance of the 40G QSFP+ optical module, this paper introduces the test scheme and platform designed by QSFPTEK company for different test indexes of 40G QSFP+ optical module and carries out a large number of tests according to the parameter indexes of 40G QSFP+ optical module.

Test Specs of 40G QSFP+ Transceiver

The tests of optical transceivers are usually divided into transmitter test and receiver test. The test at the transmitting end usually includes average transmitting optical power, jitter, eye diagram, and extinction ratio. The test at the receiving end usually includes the bit error rate, jitter, and receiver sensitivity.

Average Transmit Optical Power

The average output power of the optical fiber module under the condition of normal optical fiber transmission is the average output power of the optical fiber module. Although the average transmitted optical power index should be larger in theory to increase the margin of transmitted optical power to reduce the impact of loss in the optical fiber on the transmission signal, in fact, it is not the bigger the better, but should be considered according to the specific transmission distance, cost, maintenance time and other aspects. In addition, in the test process, it should be noted that the input code type, the wavelength of the optical power meter, the change of working voltage and current will affect the value of average transmitted optical power.

QSFPTEK 40G QSFP+ SR4 and 40G QSFP+ LR4 transceivers fully comply with IEEE 802.3ba standard. The transmitter power of the 40GBASE-SR4 transceiver is -7~1dBm and the 40GBASE-LR4 transceiver is -7~2.3dBm.

Extinction Ratio

Theoretically, when modulating the laser, if the input is a “0” level signal, the average emitted light power of the laser should be 0, that is, no laser is generated. However, due to the inherent characteristics of the laser device, when the input is the “0” level signal, the laser will still produce a laser, so there will be corresponding average emission light power. The larger the average transmitted optical power is, the more it affects the signal level judgment, and then affects the reception sensitivity of the receiving end. The extinction ratio is a parameter used to describe this effect. Theoretically, it is necessary to improve the extinction ratio as much as possible, reduce the impact on the receiving sensitivity, and save the cost of increasing the transmitted optical power, but it is not that the larger the extinction ratio is, the better. Because the extinction ratio is too large, the bias current decreases, and the eye pattern-related jitter at the transmitter becomes larger. Therefore, it is best to keep the extinction ratio at a relatively limited value.

Eye diagram

Eye diagram refers to the figure after the superposition of various periodic random sequences is collected on the oscilloscope after the period of the oscilloscope and the transmitted periodic random pseudo sequence is adjusted to be the same. Because the final figure is very similar to human eyes, it is vividly called an “eye diagram”. Large “eye”: the gap between the eyes is large, that is, the eye diagram is relatively correct, indicating that the inter symbol crosstalk of the signal is small and the transmission characteristics of the system are good; Small “eye”: the gap between the eyes is small, that is, the eye pattern is not correct, which indicates that there is inter symbol interference between signals and the transmission characteristics of the system are not very good. Many parameters of the signal can be analyzed by using the eye diagram. For example, the receiving sensitivity can be judged by the time of the rising edge and falling edge of the eye diagram, and the jitter and noise can be judged by the thickness of the eye diagram. Therefore, an oscilloscope is often used to observe eye diagrams to analyze the advantages and disadvantages and performance of transmission systems. This method of analyzing signal quality through an eye diagram is often called an eye diagram analysis method. A typical eye diagram is shown in the figure below, which is generated by the superposition of various combinations between various random signals “0” and “1”.

Transceiver

Transceiver

Eye Pattern Formation

Also Read:  Top 5 Software Development Trends in Telemedicine

Receiving sensitivity

Receiving sensitivity is the key factor to measure the quality of an optical module. Reception sensitivity refers to the minimum received optical power Pmin that the receiving end can receive a modulated signal without bit error or limit to a certain bit error rate. Its unit is DBM. Firstly, the bit error meter sends a pseudo-random signal of a certain code type. The signal is connected to the electrical interface of the optical module through the high-speed line. Through the electro-optical conversion of the optical module, the light generated at the transmitting end is transmitted back to the receiving end through the optical fiber, and then transmitted back to the bit error meter through the high-speed line to monitor the bit error rate. At the same time, an adjustable optical attenuator will be added at the output end of the transmitting end to adjust the transmitting optical power, so that the transmitting optical power will continue to decrease until it reaches the critical point of bit error, but ensure that the bit error rate is within the limited bit error rate, and then measure the attenuated transmitting optical power value through the optical power meter, which is the receiving sensitivity.

QSFPTEK 40G QSFP+ System Test Platform

According to the five basic test indexes of average transmitted optical power, optical eye diagram, electric eye diagram, sensitivity, and bit error rate, the construction of the test system is mainly divided into two parts. One part detects the transmitted optical power, sensitivity, and bit error rate, and the other part detects the optical eye diagram and electric eye diagram. Generally speaking, the 40G QSFP+ optical module produced in the industry needs to be fully inspected for the three indexes of transmitted optical power, sensitivity and bit error rate, while the optical eye diagram and electric eye diagram only need to spot inspect the 40G QSFP+ optical module after the three indexes of transmitted optical power, sensitivity and bit error rate are fully inspected, so it is called detecting transmitted optical power The test part of sensitivity and bit error rate is the full inspection test system. The testing part of detecting optical eye diagrams and electric eye diagram is called sampling testing system.

40G QSFP+ Full Inspection Test System

The equipment required for the 40G QSFP+ full inspection test system includes 4×10G bit error meter, 16PCS 25G high-frequency lines, 1PC AOC high-speed test board, 1PC MPO-FC jumper, 4PCS optical branches, 4PCS handheld adjustable optical power meters, and 4PCS adjustable optical attenuators. The full inspection test system is shown in the figure below.

40G QSFP+ Sampling Test System

The equipment required for 40G QSFP+ sampling test system includes 4PCS 10G bit error meter, 16PCS 25G high-frequency lines, one AOC high-speed test board, one MPO-FC jumper, 4PCS optical branches, one high-speed electric switch, one optical switch, and one 12.5G oscilloscope with optical board card and electric board card. The sampling test system is shown in the figure below.

Conclusion

This paper introduces the main test indexes of the 40G QSFP+ optical module and QSFPTEK 40G QSFP+ optical module test system in detail. It can be learned that QSFPTEK has a rigorous optical module test process and platform, and is able to provide 40G QSFP+ series optical modules with high quality and high reliability.

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Canon R5 vs Sony a7riv

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In the beginning of this year I was looking to buy a DSLR camera but I was confused because there are lots of brands in the market. After some research I found Canon and Sony are the best brands for Dslr but still I was confused because they have lots of models.

So I did a google search and I found these two articles: Canon R5 vs Sony a7riv  and difference between Canon r5 and sony a7riv. These two articles helped me a lot to get a good DSLR.

Below I shared my experience. I hope it will help you to choose a good dslr and also the best one from Canon R5 and Sony A7RIV.

Canon R5 and Sony A7RIV DSLR cameras don’t have many technological differences. But if you are searching for the best one, I will recommend the Canon R5 for you.

Why Do We Recommend Canon R5?

  • Canon R5 integrated with 20 frames per second continuous shooting while Sony A7riv has 10 frames per second. Hence, this device lets you capture smooth & detailed crisp moving images effortlessly.  
  • It has a focus stacking function that maximizes the depth of field in photos. Besides, the rival device doesn’t combine with focus stacking properties. 
  • The device has a 51200 ISO range so that you can capture impressive images in the lower light environment. Also, your photos will be brighter when you increase the ISO number; thus, you will get smoother images plus flexible shutter speed. Besides, the rival DSLR has 32000 ISO. 
  • The R5 includes an anti-dust shutter mechanism function which is missing on the A7RIV. However, the device will automatically shut the sensor to protect it from dust or debris. 
  • Canon R5 has a Digic X image processing system, and it improves noise-reduction plus sharpness depending on your image. On the other hand, Sony A7RIV has a BIONZ X processor that cannot process photos like this device. 
  • The device provides you with fast, precise autofocus compared to Sony A7RIV. It enables the Dual Pixel CMOS AF II and gives 1053 AF areas with 100% area coverage. In contrast, Sony DSLR provides 567 Phase-detection, including 425 contrast autofocus to cover more areas.

Canon R5 is built with these awesome functions so that you can take your photography experience to the next level. So, we highly recommend you consider its best functions to make your investment worth it. 

Similar Features of Sony A7riv and Canon R5

  • Sony a7riv and Canon R5 come with a fully articulated Touch LCD Screen so that they get flexible shooting positions. 
  • Both of them have image stabilization properties; thus, you can capture sharper images from longer focal lengths even if the camera is shaky. 
  • You will get better connectivity because they have both Wifi & Bluetooth functions. 

Quick Comparison Chart: Canon R5 vs Sony a7riv

Specifications Canon R5 Sony a7riv
Editor’s Rating 4.8 out of 5 4.7 out of 5
Continuous Shooting Speed  20 FPS 10 FPS
ISO Range  100-52000 100-32000
Focus Stacking Yes No
Anti Dust Shutter Mechanism  Yes No
Image Processor  DIGIC X BIONZ X
Camera Resolution  45 MP 61 MP
Battery Life  320 shots 670 shots
Image Stabilization Yes Yes
Warranty  1 Year Limited 1 Year Limited

Things You Can Consider about Sony a7riv – 

  • Sony a7riv provides a 61 MP full-frame stunning resolution, besides, Canon R5 has 45 MP. Hence, you can capture a more detailed photo. 
  • You can capture up to 670 photos on a charge on this camera, while Canon can last for 320 shots. So, if you want a more extended battery, this should be your best pick.
Also Read:  Tips to get the Mate 40 pro with original features and price

Differences and Similarities Between Canon R5 and Sony a7riv

Picture Quality 

If you want to get the best image sensor, then Sony a7riv would be the right choice. It has the world’s first image resolution of 61 MP full-frame. Additionally, the device developed an Exmor R CMOS image sensor that gives the incomparable high resolution. However, Sony lets you capture low-noise images with its extremely high 61 MP resolution. 

Canon R5, on the other hand, comes with a 45 MP resolution so that you get a phenomenal quality image. You will get impressive results with this device as well. So, if you want to click next-level images with full detail, then Sony would be your best bet. While the Canon R5 can also deliver outstanding image quality. 

Image Processor 

When it comes to the image processors, Canon R5 has DIGIC X, whereas Sony a7riv provides BIONZ X. Meanwhile, the Digic X can reduce noises from the image, enhance detail, and can capture 8k video efficiently. Besides, the Sony a7riv processor engine maximizes high-resolution sensors but cannot provide results like Canon. Yet if you want to get the maximum resolution, go with Sony a7riv. 

Focus Points 

Canon R5 integrated with Dual Pixel CMOS AF II enables focus point. You can cover 100% area with Canon R5’s 1053 AF. At the same time, the Sony a7riv mirrorless camera has 567 phase detection with 425 contrast. Since the Canon R5 has better focus points than Sony, it can maintain and track any moving object easily.

ISO Range 

The higher the ISO range, the better your photo will be, and Canon R5 is built with a better ISO. For example, it has 100-51200 ISO while Sony a7riv includes 100-32000. Thus, Canon R5 can click impressive images on lower light ambient and increase the light to deliver smooth results. 

Battery Life 

Sony a7riv has a longer battery life than Canon R5. Sony can click 670 photos on a charge while Canon can last for up to 320 shots. If you want to cover any occasion seamlessly then Sony a7riv should be your best pick. 

Display 

These two mirrorless cameras are built with a touch screen LCD which is very convenient. That’s because you can effortlessly change any settings with your fingertips. Additionally, the screen is fully articulated so that you get flexible shooting speed. You can rotate the screen at any point to capture any tricky shots. 

Dimensions & Weight 

Sony a7riv measures 5.13 x 3.88 x 3.13 inches while it weighs 14.9 ounces. Besides, Canon R5’s dimensions are 9.1 x 9.1 x 9.1 inches, and it is only 1.62 pounds. So, Sony is slightly compact & lightweight compared to Canon, and you can easily carry this device. 

Warranty 

These two devices share the same one-year limited warranty from the date you purchase them. This period will cover any manufacturer defects or technical issues on the camera. Keep in mind they won’t deliver free repair service if you damage any part. Nevertheless, Sony and Canon cameras are built with quality material, so you can use them for years to come.

Final Words 

Canon R5 and Sony a7riv are two awesome choices for photography, but we suggest Canon R5. It is slightly expensive but combined with impressive features. The R5 has a better ISO Range, focus point, image processing system, and much more. So, you should give it a thought before making your buying decision. 

However, if you want the world’s best resolution camera, Sony a7riv could be your best bet.

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Top 6 Best Budget Laptops 2022

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Top 6 Best Budget Laptops 2022

We Did Comprehensive Research on Best Budget Laptops 2022 and came up with our final recommendations. If you are planning to buy a Top 6 Best Budget Laptops 2022, chances are your budget is limited to Under 1 Lakh.

The best budget laptops are usually the ones offering decent entry-level specifications like 4 to 8 GB of ram, i3 to i5 10th  generation processor and up to 256 GB of SSD storage for faster access at very reduced prices or budget prices.

However, you will sometimes find mid-range specifications offering a step up at similar prices on cheaper machines. In this article, I am going to show you the best budget laptops that you can plan to buy for 2022 under different categories. which are the Best Budget Laptops   Under 1 Lakh to buy in 2022?

5. Microsoft Surface Go 2: Best 2 in 1

The best budget for one laptop it’s a quick lightweight and versatile laptop. It is for anyone who needs on-the-go mobility in a small two in one. The surface goes 2 may be limited by its small size and at the entry-level by a low powered Intel Pentium processor. This can be upgraded to an intel core M3 for 130 more on its base price but it offers something never before seen in the windows world.

It is a truly budget-minded two in One.  its build is every bit as solid as its bigger brother the surface pro 7. It boasts a beautiful and bright display.  The best part is it’s actually thin and light enough to be held in one hand like a proper tablet. While performance doesn’t feel as smooth as on something like Ipad or even a chrome book but those devices can’t do quite as many things as the surface goes 2.

 One of which is it runs a full version of Windows 10 on the battery front however it’s a bit lacking which is the most unfortunate compromise. Since this is a device made for portability but even with its fair share of falls the Microsoft surface go 2 is absolutely the best budget two in one you can buy in 2022.

SPECIFICATION

  • Processor: Intel Pentium Gold  4425Y 8th Gen Intel Core
  • Storage: 128GB SSD
  • RAM :- 64GB DDR4 2666MHz RAM (16GB DIMM + 16GB DIMM)
  • Graphics:- Iris Plus graphics
  • Display Size: IPS 15.6″ Full HD Display (1920X1080)
  • Operating System:- Windows 10 Home(64bit)
  • Weight :- 3.76 lbs

4. Dell Inspiron 13 7000: Best Business Laptop

Dell Inspiron 13 7000 is the best business budget laptop with powerful and efficient hardware. This budget laptop enjoys solid battery life for all the daily work schedules with the latest generation of Intel CPU under the hood and discrete graphics option.

This Dell Inspiron has plenty of power for all your productivity tasks. Whether you are typing up another spreadsheet or winding down with the game. At the end of the long working day, the Dell Inspiron 13 7000 strikes a great balance.

It features powerful and efficient general computing power like the 9th generation intel CPU options including core i5, i7 and i9 chips.  Also, it comes with up to 16 gigs of ram and this laptop sports a dedicated graphics card too.

The standard model comes with the Nvidia GTX 1053 GB for entry-level gaming chips but there is also an option for a new generation 1650. Which can play all sorts of games if you tweak the settings enough with the typical Inspiron build quality we would expect.

This system borrows several great design features from the more premium XPS range but makes them available in a more affordable form. It’s not the lightest laptop but just over four pounds but it has got a great spill-resistant keyboard, full wi-fi and Bluetooth connectivity and the top-mounted 720p webcam for conferencing video calling or online classes.

SPECIFICATION

  • Processor: AMD Ryzen 5 2500U Quad-Core
  • Storage:  256GB Solid State Drive
  • RAM:- 8GB DDR4
  • Graphics:- AMD Radeon RX Vega 8 Graphics
  • Display Size: 13. 3″ 1920×1080 FHD LED-Backlit IPS Touchscreen
  • Operating System:- Windows 10 Home(64bit)
  • Weight :- 3.80 lbs

3. HP Envy X360 Ryzen: Best for Video Editing

HP Envy X360 13 is the best budget laptop for video editing. You won’t find a better video editing laptop for less than 1000 $ or  (70,000 Rs). This NVX 360 13 with the Ryzen AMD  CPUs is a creative pro’s dream machine for less than a thousand dollars. Finding a laptop for video editing for under a thousand dollars is not easy.  When it comes to video editing the more cores are the better.

The best video editing laptops of  2022 like the Dell XPS  15 and the Mac book pro 16 inches will cost you over2000 $ or (1,40,000 Rs). Fortunately, HP has released the Envy x360 13 with the AMD’s latest Ryzen 5 for 730 $.  you get an 8 core machine with the AMD Radeon graphics that can handle demanding video and photo editing tasks unlike many other laptops in its price range or even higher.

Also Read:  Tips to get the Mate 40 pro with original features and price

The Envy X360 outperforms many premium laptops costing you well over a thousand dollars. For a task like rendering a video the Envy X360 even has an excellent display with a fairly wide colour game mode, 71 of adobe RGB and 96 of SRGB and a delta e of 2.26 but it is also a bright screen at 399 nits.

Enjoys an excellent contrast ratio of 11: 10 inches to 1. This 730 dollar laptop also gets you 8 gigs of ram and 128GB SSD. Which can be upgraded to 256GB for only just 40 dollars. It is a great creative laptop for an almost unbelievably low price.

SPECIFICATION

  • Processor: – AMD Ryzen 7-4700U 
  • Storage :-  512GB SSD
  • RAM:- 16GB DDR4 RAM
  • Graphics:- AMD Radeon Graphics
  • Display Size: 15.6″ Full HD IPS Multitouch Screen WLED Backlight (1920 x 1080)
  • Operating System:- Windows 10 Home(64bit)
  • Weight:- 4.41 lbs

2. Dell G5 SE: Best Gaming

Dell G5 SE gaming laptop is the best budget gaming laptop. It offers a solid gaming experience for Under a thousand dollars. The dell g5 SE leverages the newest AMD Ryzen CPU for powerful gaming at a value price although gaming laptops are typically expensive.

The dell g5 SE is a great example of why they don’t need to be starting at just 900 dollars. You get AMD Ryzen 5 CPU and an AMD Radeon rx5600m graphics chip,  8 gigs of ram and 256 GB SSD with options for faster CPUs more powerful graphics extra and faster storage.

 Every model comes with a 15.6 inch 1080p IPS display for 1049 dollars. You will get a fantastic machine with 16 gigs of ram and final GB of SSD with a faster Ryzen 7 with the decent build quality and surprisingly good gaming performance.

The driver’s laptop with the NVidia’s Geforce RTX 26 GPU.  The g5 SE offers an all-around solid gaming package at an impressively competitive price.

The keyboard is surprisingly good and offers RGB lightning for 30 dollars more. And overall there are fewer sacrifices than expected to keep the price down on such a capable gaming machine.

SPECIFICATION

  • Processor: AMD 4th Generation Ryzen 5 4600H
  • Storage: 1024GB PCIe SSD
  • RAM:- 16GB DDR4 Memory
  • Display Size :15.6-inch FHD (1920 x 1080) Anti-Glare Display
  • Operating System:- Pre-loaded Windows 10 
  • Weight:-5.51 pounds
  • Graphics:-  AMD Radeon RX 5600M
  • Battery life:- 6 hours  

1. Acer Swift 3: Best Overall

Asus Swift 3 is the best budget laptop overall. If you want a fast well-built laptop for very little money. The Asus swift 3 with the AMD offers an 8 core CPU for just 650 $. Finding a fast well-built laptop for just 650  $ dollars is not easy.  Normally one of the things you can give is a processing power delegated to the lower end and or last generation intel core CPUs.

In addition to builds that are plasticky and don’t Elicit confidence in their long term viability.  fortunately, Acer has come on the strong with his fifth three it could be the AMD’s latest Ryzen 7 CPU for around 650 dollars.

You get an 8 core laptop with the AMD Radeon integrated graphics that help the laptop not only perform the productivity task with ease but even churn through demanding tasks like encoding video. The display is not the best we have seen but you will forgive it once you will see how well this budget laptop performs.

The 650 dollar Asus Swift 3  also gets you 8  gigs of ram and a large vital Gb SSD. It is not a sleek or modern-looking laptop by any means although it is very well built you will be hard-pressed to find a faster or better-built laptop.

You can spend a bit more namely 700 and double the diamond storage. Those are remarkably low prices for a surface laptop. And should appeal to students at all levels finally the surface laptop go is a good looking device that comes in a variety of colours to let students choose just the right one for them.

So these are the best budget laptops in different categories that you can plan to buy in 2022.

SPECIFICATION

  • Processor: AMD Ryzen 5 4500U
  • Storage:  512GB PCIe NVMe   SSD
  • RAM:- 8GB LPDDR4 RAM
  • Graphics:- AMD Radeon Graphics
  • Display Size:”14″ 1920×1080 FHD IPS LED Display 
  • Operating System:- Windows 10 (64bit)
  • Weight:- 4 pounds
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5 Features to Look for in a Cloud Storage Migration Tool

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Storage Migration Tool

Migrating data from one cloud storage to another is challenging for business cases. MSPs, SMBs, and enterprises not only have to migrate large data sizes but also transfer sharing permissions, timestamps, and external shares while retaining folder/file structure.

Along with the core migration complexities comes extra challenges such as configuring the right hardware specifications and deployment in the cloud or on-prem migration environment.

Businesses can mitigate 90% of these challenges by using the right cloud storage migration tool. We recommend looking for these features in a migration tool:

  1. Support for High-volume Migration

The most basic and crucial feature to look for in a cloud storage migration tool is the support for high-volume data migration. Unlike personal migration, there is a lot of data and users to be migrated in business cases. For example, enterprises can have several hundred TBs or even PBs of company data to be migrated from the source to the destination cloud.

Therefore, businesses planning a large-scale cloud data migration need to use a cloud storage data migration tool like CloudFuze that is capable and reliable for high-volume migration with fast data transfer throughput.

  1. Compatibility With All the Leading Cloud Storage Services

Support for only selected cloud storage services is indicative of the limitations of many cloud storage migration tools. It is a fact that the best tools are the ones that offer support for all the leading cloud storage services, including Box, Dropbox, Google Workspace, Microsoft 365, Egnyte, Citrix ShareFile, and many others.

Also Read:  Top 7 Most Expected Apple Products of 2022

A discrete migration tool like CloudFuze supports various cloud data migration combinations such as migration between all-inclusive cloud suites, e.g., from Google Workspace to Microsoft 365, or from standalone cloud storage like Box or Dropbox to Microsoft 365 or Google Workspace.

  1. Automatic Error-resolving Functionality

Microsoft does not offer support for specific special characters and specific file/folder names in OneDrive for Business and SharePoint Online. And when migrating to Microsoft 365, businesses cannot replace unsupported special characters and file/folder names with supported ones with a manual process. They need to rely on a cloud storage migration tool that can do these replacements automatically at high speeds.

CloudFuze automatically replaces unsupported special characters with (-) or (_) and resolves unsupported file/folder names. CloudFuze also trims long file paths unsupported in Microsoft 365 with a high-speed automatic process.

  1. Dedicated Server Infrastructure

Many businesses having a hard deadline need to expedite the entire migration project. In fact, getting the entire migration project completed within a tight deadline can be a key performance indicator for the IT team of many companies. Therefore, it is critical for businesses to choose a cloud storage migration tool with dedicated servers instead of ones with shared servers.

  1. Scalable Technology

Businesses that have specific or unique data migration requirements need to use a cloud storage migration tool that offers scalability, both in terms of functionalities and deployment. MSPs, in particular, can highly benefit from a scalable migration tool by catering to the specific requirements of their clients.

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